With at least 70 years of research in the adoption of agricultural innovations, there has been a proliferation of adoption models, both conceptual and numerical. This chapter concludes by suggesting that there is the need for proper religious education, a theology of enculturation, and understanding of African worldviews in order to sustain Africans' beliefs and practices. ... African God/dess of Creation. Death is not a sufficient condition for becoming an ancestor. Educational Technology Research and Development. The S… Ancestor worship is the almost universal religion of Africa. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. There may be spirits and ancestors floating around, but there’s only one God. To Support Customers in Easily and Affordably Obtaining the Latest Peer-Reviewed Research, Copyright © 1988-2021, IGI Global - All Rights Reserved, Additionally, Enjoy an Additional 5% Pre-Publication Discount on all Forthcoming Reference Books, Ekpatt, AniediAbasi Okon. Though the spirit world is a radically different world, it is also a "carbon copy of the countries where [the ancestors] lived in this life" (John S. Mbiti, Concepts of God in Africa [SPCK, 1970], p. 259). For it is through the love, the will, and the power of God that all souls are saved. In African indigenous religions, the principal deities, spirits, gods, ancestors, and personal and impersonal forces are regarded as active agents in the created world, with theistic and nontheistic notions of supernatural forces embedded in the various cosmologies. Herero God of Creation. The above concept share light to the way some Africans communicate in life, Mbiti (1969:178) disputes the use of the term worship, yet he accepts that in the worship of God, in some cases, sacrifices and offerings are directed to one or more of the following: God, spirits and the living dead (ancestors). We found that key elements that should be used in adoption models for agriculture include: a way to assess the performance of the proposed new technology (e.g., relative advantage, both economic and non-economic) in relation to the existing technology or practice in place, the process of learning about this advantage, the interaction between individual decision-making and external influences, and characteristics of potential adopters affecting their attitudes towards the technology. b) venerating and communicating with spirits and ancestors Download document ( 100.00 KES ) We conducted a review of conceptual models to clarify the concepts and approaches used in the practice of modeling adoption in agriculture. Though Islam has conquered north Africa and Christianity (as the world sees it) has conquered the rest, through it all is the power of ancestor worship. McVeigh (1974:148) says: A God who is so inscrutable is best left on the periphery of life. Traditional African belief is overwhelmingly monotheistic. The Spirit of Ancestors in African Traditional Religion How the spirits of ancestors can be a blessing or harmful and The Power and importance of ancestors in African traditional society Ancestors in African Traditional religion are very important in that they were once alive and now they are in the spirit and they do not die again. African Supreme God. God was the creator of the universe. The Jews too do not worship En-Sof. Atheistic tendencies in Africa are minimal. Our review covered a range of modeling approaches for diffusion and individual adoption, illustrating different perspectives used in the literature. Attachment to these spirits is still extremely strong and much of the Shona behavior and ethical conduct can be explained by this belief. And so the African turns to the ancestors, and some times to nature spirits. In, AniediAbasi Okon Ekpatt (University of Uyo, Nigeria), Advances in Religious and Cultural Studies, InfoSci-Education Knowledge Solutions – Books, InfoSci-Social Sciences Knowledge Solutions – Books, Phenomenological Approaches to Religion and Spirituality. Other articles where Ancestor worship is discussed: African religions: Ritual and religious specialists: Ancestors also serve as mediators by providing access to spiritual guidance and power. Africans believed in existence of a supreme being who lived in mountains, clouds and the sky. All life, power, and existence flow from God, and by “right of their primogeniture and proximity to God by death God has granted the ancestors a qualitatively more powerful life force over their descendants.” In African culture we bring our requests to the gods through the ancestral spirits using specific rituals & divination techniques collectively known as ancestral worship. And so is the same for the spirit of our ancestors. Let the light I offer be a “beacon of hope” and serve as an escape and protective shield from the shadows of despair. The spirit beings are usually divided into two categories: (1) the spirits of the dead elders (the ancestors) and (2) the non-human spirit beings. Findings from this review can be considered by adoption researchers and modelers in their work to assist policy and extension efforts to improve the uptake of future beneficial agricultural innovations. Some people liken the Orishas to gods … african concepts of: divinities spirits ancestors magic & medcine Divinities Nature: = Second most important Element in African Belief Structure =Essentially regarded as intermediaries Between SB and Humans =Venerated (Not Worshiped) as central figures in African Religious Belief Through devotions in rituals during ceremonies and Festivals (a) What was the role of ancestors in Traditional African Communities? Comparatively viewed, African ancestor worship has a remarkably uniform structural framework. The Gods, Goddesses, Spirits and legendary characters of African mythology. He is invisible and infinite and cannot be comprehended by the finite man. Ancestor worship is based on the belief that our ancestors become spirits when they die. Honoring the Ancestors is of primary importance in all Lucumí rituals and practices. The most significant similarity between the African God and the Biblical God is the fundamental belief in a deity. Ontology: A set of concepts and categories in a subject area or domain that shows their properties and the relations between them. Against this backdrop, the researcher undertook this study to show that the concept of god is not strange to Africans and that in traditional Africa there is no atheist. Many communities have invocations uttered through out the day Nature or Attributes of god Attributes of God as understood by the African people a) God is Good – Nearly all-African communities describe God as being good to all people and things. We also detected inconsistencies in how different elements are treated in different conceptual models, particularly behavioral elements such as attitudes, motivations, intentions, and external influences. In African indigenous religions, the principal deities, spirits, gods, ancestors, and personal and impersonal forces are regarded as active agents in the created world, with theistic and nontheistic notions of supernatural forces embedded in the various cosmologies. Ancestor worship is found in many cultures all across the world. Selected Aspects In African Religious Heritage: African Concept Of God Selected Old Testament Prophets And Their Teachings Similarities Between The Traditional African Myths And The Biblical Accounts Of Creation SIN SINAI COVENANT: MOSES Spirits Spirits And Ancestors Steps In The Formation/ Sealing Of The Covenant The spirit world is believed to be a radically different world, it is also a carbon copy of the countries where [the ancestors] lived in this life ( Deceased ancestors remain close by, as part of the family, sharing meals and maintaining an interest in family affairs -- just as before death. Let the light I offer fade out the shadows of fear and guide them toward the arms of God and to a higher cause. Mbiti (1969:178) disputes the use of the term worship, yet he accepts that in the worship of God, in some cases, sacrifices and offerings are directed to one or more of the following: God, spirits and the living dead (ancestors). Integrating 3D Modeling, Sustainability and Cost Estimating at the Conceptual Design Stage of Bridge... An Art of Review on Conceptual based Information Retrieval, Understanding the Adoption of Innovations in Agriculture: A Review of Selected Conceptual Models, In book: Phenomenological Approaches to Religion and Spirituality (pp.18-43). namely: 3D CAD modeling, Bridge Sustainability Rating System (BrSRS), Bridge Environmental Performance Strategy Mapping (BrEPSM), and conceptual cost estimating. Ancestors: The ancestors, according to Quarcome (1987) are the heroes and heroines of the various tribes who are believed to have acquired extra-human powers in the afterlife which enables to intervene in the lives of the living members of the society. These models can be seen as simplified versions of theories for practical application or as condensed wisdoms of practice that need to be further investigated theoretically and empirically. The belief remains that there is an interaction between the invisible and visible worlds (2007;377). I want to write very briefly here about the various kinds of spirits that can be part of a shamanic calling and become your guides or possess you as you do the work of the ancestors. The body disappears, but the energy doesn’t go anywhere. Also his prosperity, comfort and good living are derived from the spirits of his ancestors. The model aims to provide bridge type recommendations, allow customization of a sustainable bridge, illustrate forecasted footprint levels, present the conceptual design in AutoCAD’s 3-dimensional (3D) mode, facilitate a recalculation process when the bridge’s dimensions are altered, and generate a conceptual cost estimate. Their healers mainly use ukufemba as their medium of healing. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. The author is aware that Jesus is our mediator, who connects us-directly to God. The Jews like the Africans, worship the intermediary Gods. 8.2. 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